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2.5 years: hygiene skills
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5 years: we play and make plans

Children at the age of five are actively growing up. The child stretches out like a young tree, with almost no recovery: everything goes into the development of the skeleton and muscles.

To ensure such intensive growth, the body needs energy, so watch out for its nutrition: it must be balanced and of high quality.

In the diet of the child should be as few as possible harmful products – sweet, flour, fried, spicy and fatty. But vegetables, fresh and stewed, as well as homemade soups, meatballs and compotes – as much as possible.

Try not to let your child bite. The habit of intercepting something on the run every half hour is harmful to the digestive system.

Pay attention to the physical development of the child, to the sport in which he is engaged. High loads of a professional athlete are not suitable for children of this age, because the development of the body has not yet been completed.

Psychological features
The five-year plan thinking is mostly figurative, but it is during this period that the prerequisites of verbal-logical thinking are formed. The child begins to operate with abstract categories, he tries to analyze, establish causal relationships, generalize and compare.

In addition, targeted planning appears. Now the child can set himself a goal, break the whole path of its achievement into stages, consistently implement his plan, adjusting it on the go, if necessary. The actions of the child are no longer spontaneous, caused by momentary desires. On the contrary, his behavior becomes more conscious.

More meaningfully, the senior preschooler begins to orient in his own experiences. He understands what it means, “I am sad,” “I rejoice,” and so on.

Moreover, the child is not only aware of his emotions at this particular moment, but also able to generalize them. If a child has failed several times to beautifully cut a picture, then he already negatively assesses his abilities in general: “I can’t cut”.

The speech of a child of five is intelligible and clear. He can tell a story, describe an object, list its qualities, give his assessment of the event. He reasoned well, enjoyed reacting to jokes and sometimes joking himself.

Children use all parts of speech, including adverbs, prepositions and conjunctions, correctly pronounce nouns, use the future and past tense, plural and singular.

In general, by the age of five, a child learns the grammatical structure of his native language. Vocabulary continues to expand.

How to play
The main activity of a child of five years remains a game. In addition to the already mastered – story-role and directorial – at this stage there are games with rules, competition games and didactic games

Games with rules do not imply any roles. However, participation in them requires strict observance of certain rules, which are agreed in advance and must be performed by all participants.

Usually, children closely monitor each other, and any player violates any rules by remarks and protests. They are also upset when they themselves accidentally break the rules. This suggests that children at this age appear the first forms of self-control.

Among the games with the rules, the most popular are outdoor games such as Hide and Seek, Classics, Ropes, as well as table-and-print games – various “walkers” with dice, “Checkers”, “Domino” and so on.

A special place in the life of a preschooler is played by competition games, for example, sports. For participants in such games, the main incentive is to win – personal or team.

Children of preschool age, as a rule, do not like to lose and do not know how to play, and adults often artificially create the situation “Friendship has won”. However, the child must be taught to accept different outcomes of the game. This is how the motivation for success is formed in children.

Didactic games are used as a means of teaching preschoolers. Such games are organized by adults and are aimed at the formation of certain qualities or skills. “Look and remember”, “What has disappeared”, “What is superfluous”, “Call me in one word” are examples of didactic games aimed at developing memory, attention and thinking.

How to do
In older preschool age, the prerequisites of educational activity begin to form in the child. Of course, the child learns from the moment of his birth: grab items, walk, talk. But this happens as if spontaneously, according to a program laid down by nature. And only by the age of five the child is able to effectively learn by special pedagogical methods.

There are a huge number of pre-school education programs. They can be implemented both in kindergartens, development centers, and parents at home.

When choosing specific manuals, one should focus not only on the subject matter – account, reading, writing, foreign language, etc. Of significant importance is how the program meets the needs of the child himself.

Classes should include different game components, and necessarily – outdoor exercises.

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