2 years 3 months: speech development
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How to turn a teenager into a man
It was 1993. At that time I was renting a 2-room apartment in which we lived with my youngest son, Ilya, who was twelve years old. The eldest son studied…

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5 years: we play and make plans
Children at the age of five are actively growing up. The child stretches out like a young tree, with almost no recovery: everything goes into the development of the skeleton…

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4 years: why time

The child is still physically active and already has a good enough control over his body: he runs perfectly, jumps, walks the curb, keeping his balance, hanging on the horizontal bar, trying to pull himself up.

For full development, he needs regular exercise. This can be physical education and dancing in kindergarten and / or daily exercise at home.

Such exercises in combination with walks and tempering activities have a positive effect on the physical condition of the baby and his immune system, increasing the body’s resistance to disease.

At this age, you can enroll your child in the sports section.

The sports section is good in that it directs energy in the right direction, simultaneously instilling new skills, and educates the character. In addition, the habit of moving regularly, as, indeed, most habits, is being formed now.

Skills
If for a young child, the main cognitive process was perception, now memory comes first.

Thinking of a three-year-old is clearly effective. To understand the relationship of objects, the baby needs to see, touch, move them. At the age of 4, the child already has the ability to establish connections between phenomena that are not given in sensory experience, here and now. Now the child can solve life tasks not only in the course of practical actions with objects, but also in the mind, representing these objects in the form of images. Moreover, he draws on his past experience, that is, recalls.

Thus, the preschool child’s thinking becomes figurative, and memory becomes a central mental function.

In this case, the memory itself becomes manageable. The child remembers not only bright or interesting that is remembered “in itself”, but also that he needs to remember – sounds, speech, images. During this period, the child usually knows and reproduces a large number of poems, songs, tales, movements.

Attention also gains traits of arbitrariness – a child can, albeit not for long, concentrate on the occupation that he is offered, even if at that moment he would like to do something else.

The vocabulary of a child of 4 years is approximately 2000-3000 words, the speech is quite understandable and clean, most sounds are pronounced correctly. In everyday communication, the child uses complex sentences and compound sentences, and also asks a lot of questions.

In these endless “why?”, “Why?”, “How?” the child’s desire to somehow explain and streamline the surrounding reality for himself is manifested.

A preschooler is trying to build an understandable picture of the world, and adults, of course, should help him in every possible way. Moreover, it is not necessary to arrange special classes. You can tell about everything that interests the child on a walk, and on the way to kindergarten, and before going to bed.

The main thing is not to brush off the baby’s questions and, if suddenly you do not know the answers, together look for the necessary information.

How to play
The game is the most important part of the life of a preschooler. For a child of 4 years, the most characteristic are role-playing and directing games.

In the case of a role-playing game, the child takes on a role (“doctor”, “mother”, “seller”) and performs the appropriate actions (“treats”, “feeds”, “spreads the goods”). Such a game always involves interaction with other people – peers or adults.

In directing games, a child can play alone, distributing roles with toys. He kind of animates them: he speaks for his “actors” and controls their actions.

Why is the game of great importance for the harmonious development of children?

On the one hand, this is the maximum free activity of the child, which gives him great pleasure. The game reveals creative abilities and develops the emotional sphere of a preschooler.

However, the main feature of the children’s game is different: it is in the game that the child learns to control his behavior and regulate it in accordance with the rules set by the role. A waiter brings a cup of tea, a café visitor drinks tea – the game situation reproduces reality, and a child, assuming one or another role, should behave “correctly”. So the foundations of arbitrary behavior are laid.

In addition to the game, a child of 4 years old continues to master various forms of productive activity: modeling, drawing, application, design. Each of these classes implies obtaining a result (according to a model or one’s own plan) and requires certain skills (cut, glue, connect parts, etc.).

Parents should make sure that the child has free materials for creativity and several different designers.

Psychological features
At the age of 4 years, a new need begins to form in the child – the need for respect for the adult.

If earlier the baby had enough simple attention or joint activities, now it is important for him to see the recognition of his success from adults. Parents should not only notice his achievements, but also must praise him, give a positive assessment.

5 years: we play and make plans
Children at the age of five are actively growing up. The child stretches out like a young tree, with almost no recovery: everything goes into the development of the skeleton…

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