3.5 years: communication skill
Starting from 3.5 years for a harmonious development, a child just needs contacts not only with adults, but also with peers. It is in interaction with other children that the baby acquires the most important communication skills.
How does a child and adult communicate? As a rule, an adult teaches a child certain skills, transfers knowledge about the world around him, and broadcasts cultural norms of behavior. The child listens more than he speaks.
In contacts with peers, it is more important for children to show their initiative and express themselves. Children need to agree on a joint game, defend their toys, voice wishes or express discontent. All this requires the ability to communicate clearly, clearly and clearly your intentions and thoughts.
With peers, the child communicates more emotionally than with adults. Cries of indignation, laughter, resentment, enthusiasm, antics – all this is invariably present in children’s conversations and reflects the special freedom characteristic of their communication with each other.
There are no rigid “right” frameworks in the interaction between peers, children do not feel constrained, are not shy, and therefore they can try different “scenarios” of behavior and receive different responses. In this regard, quite often conflict situations arise, but for a child of 3-4 years old this is a valuable communicative experience.
The best thing that can be done to develop the thinking, speech and imagination of a child of primary preschool age is not to interfere with his play. It is in the game that the symbolic function of consciousness is formed and the transition from visual-effective thinking to figurative takes place.
As for specially organized developmental activities with the child, they should again be presented exclusively in a playful way and be based on the interests of the child.
Lessons at the desk, conducted against the desire of the baby, but for the sake of fashion for “early development”, can not only fail, but also adversely affect educational motivation in the future.
The misconception is quite common that classes with a child come down to learning reading and counting skills. Of course, you can introduce him to letters and numbers. However, a child of 3-4 years old is much more important to master the following intellectual operations:
♦ compare pictures or objects, find similarities and differences;
♦ select one item to another according to a given attribute;
♦ distinguish and name up to 10 colors, basic geometric shapes;
♦ own the concepts of “one – many”, “large – small”, “long – short”, “high – low”, “narrow – wide”, etc .;
♦ to divide objects into groups: furniture, toys, clothes, etc .;
♦ to identify the “excess” object in the presented row.
In addition, emphasis should be placed on expanding the horizons of the baby so that he knows the names and distinguishing features of domestic and wild animals, vegetables, fruits and berries, birds, fish and insects, trees, flowers and mushrooms, seasons, parts of the day and natural phenomena.
How to develop fine and large motor skills
The best means of developing large motor skills in younger preschoolers are outdoor games – both indoors and outdoors.
These can be games with a simple plot (“Cat and Sparrows”, for example), with reincarnation in animals (walking on toes like mice, overpowering like bears), round dances and games with sports equipment (balls, hoops, jump ropes ) Competitive and team games at this age are irrelevant.
An equally important factor in strengthening the muscle system, increasing physical endurance and improving coordination of movements is daily exercise. At this stage, charging is performed in conjunction with parents (or other adults) in a playful manner that excludes any coercion.
If possible, you can equip a sports corner at home, including a Swedish wall, hanging rope, rings and other devices. Exercises on the complex perfectly develop flexibility, endurance and speed of reaction.
As for the development of fine motor skills, various toys and manuals will come to the rescue: mosaic, lacing, constructors, puzzles, magnetic fishing. Such games train fine subtle movements of the hands and fingers.
In addition, the child can be invited to play with household items (clothespins, pipettes, a sieve, rope, bottles and cans), cereals, natural materials (cones, twigs, pebbles). It is very important to remember safety and strictly control the game with small items.
Children 3-4 years old usually respond well to finger games in poems and fairy tales, for example, “Boy with a finger” or “Squirrel on a cart.” At first, they simply observe the movements of the adult’s hands and listen to the text. Then, imitating an adult, they themselves make movements and correlate them with words. Such finger representations stimulate the development of not only fine motor skills, but also memory, imagination, and speech.