3 years: a crisis of three years
The body changes its size and proportion, the child no longer looks like a chubby baby. Intensively develop large and fine motor skills, motor activity reaches a maximum.
The rapid development of the brain leads to the expansion of the intellectual abilities of the child. There is a transition from visual-effective thinking to figurative, speech is enriched, memory and imagination develop.
For a rather short time, the personality of the child is absolutely changing. These changes affect his character, the main types of his activities and relations with other people – adults and peers. It is in three years that the foundations of the image of his “I” are formed and the attitude to the world around is determined.
In connection with such a global “restructuring” of the inner world, the child quite often becomes moody and difficult.
Compared with a younger age, there are no special changes in the diet and daily routine (unless you put the baby in kindergarten). Long night sleep, one day sleep, four meals a day. On the third birthday, you can introduce the child to sweets.
Do not forget about regular physical examinations: from this moment they can be taken once a year, but at least.
A child of this age is characterized by an extremely high need for movement. Three year old children are constantly improving their motor skills. The development of large motor skills comes to the forefront – the ability to perform movements that require the participation of the whole body (running, jumping, squats, turns).
Child of three years:
♦ Moves quite smoothly and adroitly, keeps balance well.
♦ Easily changes direction and stops on the go.
♦ Able to walk on toes, stand on one leg.
♦ Jumps confidently, including over small obstacles.
♦ Catches and kicks the ball.
♦ Rises and descends the stairs, holding on to the railing and even without support.
♦ Rides a tricycle.
During this period, small-motor skills are improved, although the child still experiences difficulties in making particularly precise movements.
However, a three year old child is able to:
♦ Put on and take off simple clothes, unfasten buttons and handle large zippers, remove Velcro shoes.
♦ Properly use cutlery, eat and drink carefully.
♦ Hold the pencil with the index finger and thumb, make balls and rollers from plasticine, cut the paper with scissors.
♦ Can draw a circle, horizontal and vertical lines, the first people appear.
Thus, the child becomes more independent in carrying out daily activities.
How speech develops
By the age of three, the child’s speech activity increases significantly. The baby’s vocabulary is approximately 1000-1500 words, it uses almost all parts of speech, speaks sentences of 3-6 words, and generally assimilates the grammatical structure of the language.
As a rule, the child already knows how to build a dialogue: he willingly answers the questions of others, asks himself, in his speech polite words and exclamatory intonations appear. At this age, he can already verbally describe his condition, talk about his impressions, share experiences.
In general, by the end of the third year of life, the child’s social circle is expanding significantly: he talks a lot with close adults, strangers and peers.
The child’s speech often accompanies his independent activity, the baby comments on his actions with objects (“threw the ball”) and turns to toys (“eat, doll”).
The three-year-old enjoys listening to audio recordings, tales and poems performed by an adult, easily remembers them and reproduces them practically verbatim. In addition, he actively “plays” with the language, experimenting with rhymes, and invents non-existent words.
If the child is already three years old, but he does not speak in phrases or is completely silent, then consultation of specialists is necessary – a speech therapist, neuropathologist, psychologist.
How to play
At this age, the type of play activity of the child changes dramatically. Previously, the game was like a disparate set of actions with toys. For example, an adult showed how to feed and put a doll to sleep, the child simply repeated after him. Such games came down to simple manipulation of objects (the baby loads the cubes into the machine and immediately pours it out).
Now the child is emotionally involved in the game, its duration and variability are increasing. A plot appears in the game, all actions become logically connected and sequential. The child carries the bricks to the construction site, erects a house there and populates it, breaks a garden nearby and feeds the residents of the new settlers with vegetables.
But most importantly, substitutions appear in the child’s play. Most three-year-olds easily “turn” some objects into others and give them the corresponding names. The bucket becomes a hat, the felt-tip pen becomes a thermometer, the balls become apples. The appearance of such symbols in the game indicates that the child is now able to go beyond the boundaries of a specific situation using his own imagination.