How to turn a teenager into a man
It was 1993. At that time I was renting a 2-room apartment in which we lived with my youngest son, Ilya, who was twelve years old. The eldest son studied…

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Parenting a girl
How to raise a girl? The question is important and not simple. In the upbringing of the girl there are two lines: the general line and the special line. The…

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1 year: one year crisis
By this age, most children can walk independently. The first step is behind, and ahead are new skills and abilities, conquering new heights. The child is already learning to overcome…

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2 years 3 months: speech development

In the third year of life, the child is still growing rapidly, gaining both weight and height. However, intense physical development occurs against the background of the immaturity of the circulatory, respiratory and digestive systems of the body, and this makes it very vulnerable.

The circle of communication of the baby is expanding. The child becomes unusually mobile and actively explores the world around him. These factors increase the likelihood of injury, infection, poisoning. To maintain his health, follow the doctor’s recommendations regarding routine vaccinations – they will insure the child from the serious consequences of dangerous diseases.

Not the last role is played by the hardening of the child. More often give him the opportunity to walk barefoot on grass or sand in the summer, take with him water and air baths. Spend as much time as possible in the fresh air. The immunity, strengthened in the summer, will resist unwanted bacteria all year long.

Subject activity
The most significant from the point of view of the child’s mental development during this period is the objective activity, which occurs at the age of about a year.

Subject activity – a joint work, during which an adult transmits, and the child masters the ways of acting with objects. It can be both household items (spoon, glass, toothbrush, comb, pencil, key), and toys (pyramids, sorters, cubes).

In the course of such cooperation, the baby receives both parental attention and close emotional contact, and, most importantly, learns the correct ways to interact with objects. The child learns that they brush their teeth with a toothbrush, open the lock with a key, you can assemble a house from the cubes, and put the image of a butterfly from the mosaic.

All these actions in a child do not occur spontaneously, they are the result of learning in the course of joint practical activity with an adult. How exactly does this teaching take place?

Making a two-year-old child do something is impossible.
Volitional regulation of behavior at this age is absent; the baby simply cannot consciously obey the requirements of an adult. Therefore, it is necessary to make sure that the desired action becomes attractive to the child, and he himself wants to master it.

Given the nature of nature’s tendency to copy adult behavior in children, it is not difficult to calculate the surest way to learn at this age – through imitation. An adult demonstrates a pattern of action to the child and suggests repeating it. For example, the mother herself collects an insert frame in front of the child, and then invites the baby to insert several fragments.

Naturally, the speed and methods of mastering objective actions are different for all children. Someone instantly grabs the pattern and actively uses a new action in life. Others need repeated tests with adults – “hand in hand”, their approval and support. Still others observe with interest, but for the time being they do nothing. Nevertheless, a huge number of objective actions in early childhood is mastered precisely through imitation.

Ideally, any practical demonstration of the skill is accompanied by an adult’s explanation: “Look, I dip a brush in a glass of water, then in paint.” By the age of two, the child absolutely accurately perceives such instructions and is able to follow them in the future without an obvious example. “No, no, first into the water, then into the paint,” – this phrase will be enough to correct the baby’s wrong actions.

The thinking of a two-year-old child is extremely vivid and effective: to think is to act here and now, with specific objects. So the child discovers the physical properties of objects, for the first time comprehends patterns and cause-effect relationships. So the importance of joint practical activity at this age can hardly be overestimated.

How to play
A full-fledged game – with a role and an imaginary situation – is not yet at this age. At its core, the game is procedural – the baby does not come up with anything new, he reproduces with toys what he did with the adult. Nevertheless, it was during this period that the beginnings of a “real” story-role game were formed, the heyday of which falls on the preschool age (from 3 to 6 years).

First, game motivation is intensified. If earlier the child could easily distract from the game and switch to another activity, now he does not quit the action that he has begun and is really interested in the process.

Secondly, actions with toys become more developed and varied. The game takes longer and richer in content.

Thirdly, the first game substitutions appear. From now on, the child uses in the game not only realistic toys – copies of real objects (for example, sets of plastic vegetables and fruits, a small iron or an airplane). It includes neutral toys (cubes or balls) in the game, endowing them with different meanings (the ball becomes a tomato, the cubes become a machine). Initially, an adult introduces substitution, and the child only imitates it. But by about 2.5 years old, the child captures the essence of substitutions and begins to actively use them in the game.

3 years: a crisis of three years
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