Psychological characteristics of boys and girls
Why nature is male and female
But really, why? After all, once upon a time plants and simple animals did not have this: “he” and “she”. But at a certain stage of evolution, it suddenly turned out that dividing living beings of the same species into male and female organisms is very beneficial. Why?
The answer to this question was proposed in his theory of asynchronous evolution of sexes, doctor of biological sciences, geneticist V.A. Geodakyan. He proceeded from the proposition that two opposing trends always fight in evolution. The first is the need to preserve what has already been created, to consolidate those signs that are beneficial, to pass them by inheritance, to make descendants as close as possible to their parents. And the second one is the need for progress, further search and change, the diversity of descendants, among whom it will be one who will give evolution a new favorable direction and provide adaptation to new conditions, and will expand the living environment. So, the struggle is conservative and progressive, sustainable and changeable, old, reliable and new, unknown, risky.
These two trends are also embodied in the division of living beings into male and female individuals, which gives tangible benefits in the implementation of both trends. At the same time, the female sex retains in its genetic memory all the most valuable acquisitions of evolution, and its goal is to prevent their changes if possible, and the male sex, on the contrary, easily loses the old and gains new: some of these acquisitions may be useful in the future or already in the present, especially at the time of the emergence of some extreme conditions. That is, the female gender is focused on survival, and the male – on progress.
Therefore, nature “protects” the female sex, and male is not so “sorry” for it. On the males, all the “novelties” of evolution are worked out. The scatter of congenital signs in the male is much greater. Women are more identical. Men have more beneficial and harmful mutations (genetic abnormalities). Thus, according to some reports, there are 122 deaf boys per 100 deaf girls. Deviations in color vision are also more common in men. Among children with strabismus, as well as with stuttering, dyslexia, alalia and other speech defects, with a delay in mental development, etc. significantly more boys. Speech therapist groups of kindergartens and other groups for children with developmental disabilities mostly consist of boys.
So, men by genotype (a complex of congenital characters) have a much greater variety than women. But every living creature throughout its life is subject to the influence of the external environment, the conditions in which it is, and under their influence also changes to some extent. For example, the weight of an animal depends not only on the innate properties of the constitution, but also on nutrition, the presence of stress, the need to lead a mobile or sedentary lifestyle. A set of signs of the body, formed taking into account the influence of the external environment, called the phenotype.
It turned out that there are also significant differences between male and female. So, observing the pairs of identical twins (their genotype is the same), they noticed that even in the case when the twins were separated from childhood and lived in different conditions, the similarity in male couples was significantly higher than in female ones. On the contrary, if the twins were heterogeneous (their genotypes are different, and the environmental influences are almost the same), then greater similarities are observed in female couples. Why? It turns out that nature gave females a wider opportunity to change under the influence of external conditions. Therefore, even with the same genotype, a woman can, for example, lose weight or gain weight over a wider range, therefore identical twin girls (the same genotype) under different living conditions can vary quite noticeably (different phenotype), and even under the same conditions twins (different genotypes) can become very similar in many ways (close phenotypes). In boys, the external similarity is determined precisely by innate properties and much less by the influence of the external environment.
Thus, with a sharp change in living conditions, to which the given species of animals is not genotypically adapted, female individuals can adapt due to phenotypic variation, while preserving the entire set of hereditary information – genotypes. For example, with a sharp cooling, even in individuals “not prone to fullness”, the layer of subcutaneous fat can significantly increase. That is, females can leave the zone of discomfort or even death in the zone of comparative comfort and survival (they better adapted to the cold, they became warm, although they continue to live in the same cold conditions). And males with the same genotype cannot change so quickly and strongly (to leave the cold by changing the phenotype). They can only die.
With all environmental changes, including social ones, males suffer more. But they still have a way: to find another habitat where it would be warmer, or to invent a fur coat.